10 Deadly Cancers That Threaten Our Lives
What is Cancer?
Cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably and destroy body tissue. Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for where they start. For example, lung cancer starts in the lung, and breast cancer starts in the breast. The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another is called metastasis.
1. Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer-related deaths in U.S. and across the world. Lung cancer is most often but not always caused by smoking. The terrifying fact is, even passive exposure to tobacco can cause cancer in those individuals who are not habitual smokers!
Around one fourth of the people with lung cancer do not exhibit any symptoms, these cancers are usually diagnosed when they affect the other organs or hamper the functioning of hormone, blood, and other systems.
There are two types of cancer; Small cell lung cancers and non-small cell lung cancers. They each spread differently.
Persistent cough: coughing up rusty-colored phlegm or blood.
A cough that does not stop or worsens over days.
Dull, aching, continuous pain in the chest region.
Exhaustion or fatigue.
Unexplained weight loss.
Frequent infections of the respiratory system.
Hoarseness in the voice,
Shortness of the breath.
Surgery, Radiation, Chemotherapy – a combination of these regimen is prescribed to combat the disease.
The prognosis for the lung cancer is bleak because doctors usually find the disease when it is at the most advanced stage.
2. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Both Hodgkin’s disease and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma originate in a white blood cell known as lymphocyte. Over 20,000 patients with NHL are expected die in U.S. alone. NHL is said to be the 6th most common type of cancer in United states of America. There are different types of NHL and each subtype require different treatment. But the most common subtypes are diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma.
Leukemia is the cancer of the blood. It starts in the bone marrow. When a person has leukemia, the bone marrow starts producing abnormal white cells which start growing and multiplying rapidly. They also do not do the job of white cells.
There are different types of blood cancer. Some forms of blood cancer are more prevalent in children than in adults. However, in general, Leukemia is classified by how fast it gets worse – usually into acute, chronic and lymphocytic or myelogenous
Acute leukemia progresses very fast and makes you feel ill straight away while Chronic leukemia progresses slowly and the symptoms may not be visible for years.
Frequent nosebleeds, bleeding from the rectum, heavy menstruation
Frequent and easy bruising
Loss of appetite
Unexplained weight loss
The exact cause of blood cancer is not known, experts says that blood cancer may be caused by exposure to radiation and exposure to benzene.
The treatment of Leukemia depends on the age of the patient, on the type of leukemia, extent of the spread and the features of the cell. Chemotherapy is the known method of treatment, the treatment may also include radiation therapy and/or bone transplant.
4. Ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer originates in the ovaries. Mutation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene increases the risk of ovarian cancer in women. The symptoms of ovarian cancer are vague and are not easily diagnosed.
The most common type of ovarian cancers is known as epithelial cells. Other types of ovarian cancer are ovarian low malignant potential tumor(OLMPT), germ cell tumors and sex cord-stromal tumors.
Pain and cramps in the belly.
Abnormal vaginal bleeding
Changes in bowel habit
Frequent need to urinate
Discomfort in pelvic area
The treatment includes surgery and chemotherapy.
5. Liver Cancer
Primary liver cancer occurs when the normal cells in the liver turn rogue and become abnormal in behavior and appearances. They, in turn, affect the adjacent cells and can spread to other organs. There are several types of cancer of the liver, they are; hepatocellular carcinoma, which begins in the main type of liver cell (hepatocyte), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatoblastoma. There is an increase in the case of hepatocellular carcinoma due to the prevalence of cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases. In U.S. Primary cancer strikes twice as many men as the women. It predominantly affects people aged over 60!
But most liver cancer is secondary or metastatic – that is, cancer begins in another part of the body such as colon, breasts etc.
Loss of appetite
Sudden weight loss
Upper abdominal pain
White, chalky stools
Discoloration of the skin and the whites of the eyes (yellowish, jaundiced look)
The treatment of the liver depends on its general health and the spread of the cancer. Depending on these factors, the treatment may include surgery, liver transplant, Ablation therapy, embolization, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and oral medication.
6. Prostate Cancer
There are more than 2 million prostate cancer survivors in U.S. Prostate cancer is most common cancer after skin cancer among men. As already mentioned this is a cancer that affects ONLY men. This cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths among men of all races.
Majority of prostate cancer starts in adenocarcinoma. This is a slow progressing disease. nobody are really sure about what causes prostate cancer. Age, race, lifestyle, STD ,obesity, and genetics may play a part in the causes.
The person will want to urinate frequently especially at night.
He may find it hard to start or stop urinating.
painful or burning sensation when urinating or ejaculating (not always common)
Urine leaks inadvertently when you laugh or cough
Blood found in urine or semen
Advanced symptoms include dull, deep pain in the pelvis, thighs, and lower back. stiffness in the region. weight loss, nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite. Swelling,weakness or paralysis of the lower extremities.
There is no one particular treatment for prostate cancer. Your doctor will factor in various parameters before recommending treatment.
The first option is watchful surveillance in which the doctors monitors the progress of the tumor. Surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, biologic therapy and Bisphosphonate therapy are some of the treatment options.
7. Colon Cancer
Colon cancer or colorectal cancer is a malignant tumor growing from the inner walls of the large intestine. A vast number of colorectal cancers arise out of polyps, removal of these polyps can prevent the occurrence of colorectal cancer.
Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer in men and it is the fourth leading cause of cancer in women in U.S.
Change in bowel habits that last more than four weeks. This could include constipation or diarrhea.
blood in stools.
Abdominal cramps, gas or pain
Unexplained weight loss
Fatigue but most often there are no early symptoms.
The three primary options are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.
8. Pancreatic Cancer
pancreatic cancer is highly lethal with poor prognosis even when detected in its early stages. A majority of pancreatic cancers begin from the exocrine cells. There are four subtypes of pancreatic cancer – squamous, pancreatic progenitor, aberrantly differentiated endocrine exocrine (ADEX), and immunogenic.
The early symptoms are vague in this type of cancer or they are often confused with digestive issues.
Upper abdominal pain accompanied by significant weight loss
Severe abdominal pain that radiates to your back. Pain may get worse at night and when you are lying on your back.
Bowel complaints such as diarrhea, constipation, gas, belching or bloating
Blood clots in the leg
Loss of appetite
Pancreatic cancer is very hard to treat but if it is found confined within the pancreas then surgery is the best options. This procedure is known as ‘ Whipple procedure.’
Depending on the type and stage of cancer, a patient may be treated with chemotherapy or in combination with radiation.
A patient with advanced pancreatic cancer may be given narcotics to help manage the pain associated with cancer.
9. Breast Cancer
Breast cancer as its name suggests starts on the tissues in the breast. There are two main types of cancer a.) Ductal carcinoma b.) Lobular carcinoma. The first sign of breast cancer is a lump or abnormal growth on the breast. Even men can have breast cancer!
Most often, women often get breast cancers due to genetic makeup, African-American women are prone to get breast cancer before their menopause than the caucasian women. Women over 50 are susceptible to breast cancer
Regular mammogram and/or screening tests can help prevent/treat breast cancer sometimes even before the onset of early symptoms.
The most common symptom is a lump or a hard mass on the breast/s
Breast or pain in the nipple.
Dimpling of the breast
Swelling of all or part of the breasts.
Inward turned nipple
Thickening of the nipple or breast skin.
Scaliness and redness of the breast skin or the nipple
Discharges from the nipple
Based on the type of the cancer, treatment may include, radiation, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, surgery and targeted therapy. The treatment can be local or systemic.
10. Skin Cancer
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. Skin cancer does not spread to other parts of the body. There are two major types of skin cancer; basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma. Another form of dangerous cancer is malignant melanoma. Early detection and treatment can increase the chances of survival for the patient diagnosed with melanoma.
Skin cancers can be caused by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet rays (sunning, tanning), exposure to x-rays, to chemicals such as arsenic. Some types of warts.
Basal cell carcinoma
- A pearly or waxy bump
- A flat, flesh-colored or brown scar-like lesion
Squamous cell carcinoma
- A firm, red nodule
- A flat lesion with a scaly, crusted surface
Both these cancers are caused mostly due to the exposure to the sun. whereas Melanoma can develop anywhere on the skin or an existing mole can turn cancerous.
- A speckled brown spot
- Mole that undergoes a change in size, texture or color. Sometimes it even bleeds.
- Small irregular shaped lesions that are red,white,blue or blue-black in color. small lesion with an irregular border and portions that appear red, white, blue or blue-black
- Dark lesions on your palms, soles, fingertips or toes, or on mucous membranes lining your mouth, nose, vagina or anus
Surgery is the main weapon used in treating melanoma.
Topical medications can be used for basal cell carcinoma
Eectrodessication and curettage (EDC) is another process
Mohs micrographic surgery, radiation therapy, cryosurgery, photodynamic therapy (PDT) are some of the treatments used in treating skin cancerOf the 100 cancers known the above 10 deadly cancers are terrorizing everyone.